Rain Facts

let’s know about rain facts. Rain is a fascinating natural phenomenon that plays an important role in Earth’s water cycle, sustaining life and shaping our climate. In this comprehensive explanation, we’ll learn about the complex processes that lead to the formation of rain and its journey through the atmosphere to Earth’s surface.

The water cycle:

To understand how rain occurs, we must first understand the concept of the water cycle, also known as the hydrological cycle. The water cycle is a continuous process by which water circulates through the atmosphere, oceans, land and living organisms. It involves various steps including evaporation, condensation, precipitation and runoff.

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  1. Evaporation:

The water cycle starts with evaporation. When the Sun’s energy reaches Earth’s surface, it heats water bodies such as oceans, lakes, rivers, and even moist soil. As a result, some of the water from these surfaces changes from liquid to vapor, becoming water vapor, an invisible gas.

  1. Transpiration:

In addition to evaporation from water bodies, plants also contribute water vapor to the atmosphere through a process called transpiration. Plants absorb water from the soil through their roots and release water vapor through tiny holes in their leaves called stomata. This released water vapor also increases the amount of water in the atmosphere.

  1. Condensation:

As water vapor rises in the atmosphere, it encounters cooler temperatures at higher altitudes. The decrease in temperature causes water vapor molecules to lose energy and slow down, causing tiny water droplets or ice crystals to form around microscopic particles such as dust, pollen or salt in the air.

These tiny droplets or ice crystals form clouds, which are visible aggregations of water vapor suspended in the atmosphere. Clouds play an important role in the condensation process, as they provide a surface for water vapor to collect and condense.

  1. Cloud Development:

Clouds come in various shapes and sizes, depending on factors such as the altitude at which they form and the prevailing atmospheric conditions. Cumulus clouds are puffy and white and often indicate good weather. Stratus clouds are layered and can cover the sky, often causing overcast conditions. Cirrus clouds are thin, high-altitude clouds, usually made of ice crystals and indicating a possible change in weather.

  1. Coordination:

Within clouds, tiny water droplets or ice crystals continue to grow when they collide with each other. These collisions cause the droplets to coalesce and coalesce, forming larger and heavier droplets or crystals. This process is called coalescence.

  1. Rain:

As the water droplets or ice crystals become larger and heavier, they become so large that they cannot be supported by the updraft within the cloud. Gravity begins to dominate, pulling the droplets or crystals downward. We experience this falling water as rain. The type of precipitation (rain, snow, hail or sleet) depends on temperature and atmospheric conditions.

  1. Rain:

When the collected water droplets reach a sufficient size, they fall as rain. Raindrops vary in size, from tiny drops to large, heavy drops. The intensity of precipitation can also vary, from light drizzle to heavy rain.

  1. Snow, Hail and Sleet:

In colder regions or at higher altitudes, the temperature can be so low that the collected water droplets freeze and form ice crystals. Ice crystals can join together to form snowflakes, which fall to the ground as snow. Hail occurs when raindrops freeze before reaching the ground. Hail is a specific type of precipitation that forms during intense storms, where water droplets are repeatedly carried by updrafts to freezing levels, forming layers of ice around them before eventually falling to the ground.

  1. Ground effect and runoff:

Upon reaching the earth’s surface, rainwater is absorbed into the soil, replenishing groundwater reserves and providing moisture to plants. Some rainwater may also flow over the land surface as runoff, eventually reaching rivers, streams, and other water bodies.

  1. Return to Atmosphere:

Water that reaches the Earth’s surface through precipitation does not remain there indefinitely. Through processes such as evaporation and transpiration, the water returns to the atmosphere, continuing the water cycle and setting the stage for more rain in the future.


Rain is a beautiful and necessary part of our planet’s water cycle. The process of rain formation involves evaporation of water from various sources, condensation to form clouds, coalescence of water droplets within clouds, and finally, precipitation in the form of rain, snow, sleet or hail. Rainwater that falls on Earth’s surface sustains life, supports ecosystems, and replenishes water sources, making it an invaluable component of our environment.

The amount of rain a country receives varies widely depending on its geographical location, climate, and topography. Some regions experience heavy rainfall throughout the year, while others have prolonged dry seasons. Here are some examples of countries and their approximate average annual rainfall:

  1. Bangladesh: Bangladesh is one of the world’s wettest countries, receiving an average annual rainfall of around 2,400 to 3,500 millimeters (94 to 138 inches). The country’s location in the delta of major rivers like the Ganges and Brahmaputra contributes to its high rainfall.
  2. Indonesia: Indonesia is an archipelago with a tropical climate, and its average annual rainfall ranges from 2,000 to 3,000 millimeters (79 to 118 inches). Rainfall patterns can vary significantly between the islands.
  3. Colombia: Colombia experiences a diverse climate due to its varying elevations. The average annual rainfall ranges from about 1,000 to 3,000 millimeters (39 to 118 inches).
  4. Democratic Republic of the Congo: The DRC has a tropical climate, and its average annual rainfall is typically between 1,200 to 2,000 millimeters (47 to 79 inches).
  5. United Kingdom: The UK has a temperate maritime climate, and its average annual rainfall ranges from 700 to 1,500 millimeters (28 to 59 inches).
  6. India: India has diverse climatic regions, but on average, it receives around 1,000 to 1,500 millimeters (39 to 59 inches) of rainfall annually.
  7. Australia: Australia is a vast country with varying climates. The northern regions experience a tropical climate with heavy rainfall, while the central and western areas are arid with low rainfall. The country’s average annual rainfall is around 400 to 600 millimeters (16 to 24 inches).
  8. Egypt: Egypt is predominantly arid, with an average annual rainfall of about 25 to 50 millimeters (1 to 2 inches) in some coastal areas.
  9. Saudi Arabia: Much of Saudi Arabia is desert, and its average annual rainfall is typically less than 100 millimeters (4 inches), with some regions receiving even less.
  10. Peru: The coastal regions of Peru are arid, while the eastern parts, including the Amazon rainforest, receive heavy rainfall. The average annual rainfall varies between 150 to 2,500 millimeters (6 to 98 inches) depending on the region.

Please note that these figures are approximate and can vary from year to year due to natural climate variability and global weather patterns. Additionally, countries with diverse topography, such as the United States and China, can have significant variations in rainfall across different regions within the country.

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